Harmonics refer to the connection of non-linear loads, such as current and voltage, to the power grid. Power electronic devices are used to produce square waveforms for these loads, which result in harmonic distortion by causing sinusoidal waves to become distorted. Harmonics can damage the power grid by causing voltage drops and wave distortions. Maintenance is necessary to prevent energy loss and waveform distortion caused by harmonics. To measure harmonics, a harmonics analyzer is needed because a multimeter is not suitable for this purpose. Harmonic measuring devices are also used to measure values such as active power and power factor. Harmonics work by using multiples of the fundamental frequency. In standard situations, the most accurate waveform for current or voltage is a sine wave. Harmonics, on the other hand, work by using different frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequency. Harmonic sources include computers, induction cooktops, and uninterrupted power supplies.
Harmonics can cause voltage distortions and drops, which can damage the power grid. Excessive neutral currents may occur, causing further disruption. Harmonics can cause the cables in a device to overheat. If harmonics occur in compensation systems, energy may be wasted and capacitors may be damaged. Harmonic distortion can also cause financial losses by wasting energy. Harmonics can cause interference and damage to communication devices, especially by causing parasitic noise. Electronic devices can also be damaged or fail to function properly due to harmonic distortion.
To prevent or eliminate the harmful effects of harmonics, precautions must be taken. The use of filters is especially important in this regard. Alternatively, increasing the power of the source of the harmonic device can be effective. A passive filter should be used to filter the harmonic system. Regular checks and maintenance are also important in preventing harmonic distortion. Selecting the correct filter for harmonic distortion is also crucial.